Renewable Energy Source (RES)

Industries : Renewable Energy Source (RES)

Renewable energies (RE) represent a cornerstone to steer our energy system in the direction of sustainability and supply security. Generating electricity, heat or biofuels from renewable energy sources has become a high priority in the energy policy strategies at national level as well as at a global scale. Challenging goals for these ‘new’ supply options to meet our energy demands have been set, e.g. at European level by the commitment of meeting 20% of the overall energy demand from renewable energy sources by 2020.

India is facing an acute energy scarcity which is hampering its industrial growth and economic progress. Setting up of new power plants is inevitably dependent on import of highly volatile fossil fuels. Thus, it is essential to tackle the energy crisis through judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources. Apart from augmenting the energy supply, renewable resources will help India in mitigating climate change. India is heavily dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs. Most of the power generation is carried out by coal and mineral oil-based power plants which contribute heavily to greenhouse gases emission.

The United States currently relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, the many types of renewable energy resources-such as wind and solar energy-are constantly replenished and will never run out.Energy is an inevitable requirement where we want development to take place. All these power generation techniques can be described as renewable since they are not depleting any resources to create the energy. Renewable sources of energy are the ones which can be generated continuously in nature and are inexhaustible. These are the top 10 energy sources:

1. Solar Energy

 The sun offers an ideal energy source, unlimited in supply, expensive, which does not add to the earth’s total heat burden and does not produce air and water pollutants. Solar installations in recent years have also largely begun to expand into residential areas with government offering incentive programs to make “green” energy a more economically viable option.

2. Hydro Electricity

 This is the most widely used form of renewable energy. The gravitation force of falling water is the key point in hydroelectricity generation. Small scale hydro or micro-hydro power has been an increasingly popular alternative energy source, especially in remote areas where other power sources are not viable.

3. Wind Energy

 Wind energy is a conversion of wind energy by wind turbines into a useful form, such as electricity or mechanical energy. Wind farms are installed on agricultural land or grazing areas, have one of the lowest environmental impacts of all energy sources.

4. Tidal Energy

 Tidal energy is not a very popular energy source, but has immense potential of becoming one in the near future. Tidal energy can be generated in two ways, tidal stream generators or by barrage generation. The power created through tidal generators is generally environmental friendly and causes less impact on established ecosystems.

5. Compressed Natural Gas

 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline, diesel or propane fuel. It is cleaner and safer to use as it diffuses easily into the surroundings if leaked. However, burning it does release a few greenhouse gases in the air.

6. Biomass

 Biomass or bio-energy, the energy from organic matter for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food. Wood is still our largest biomass energy resource even today. Other sources of biomass can be used including plants, residues from agriculture or forestry and the organic components. Plants and animal matters are used for production of fibers chemicals or heat. The net emission of carbon dioxide will be zero as long as plants continue to be replenished for biomass energy purposes. Burning of plant or animal matters causes’ air and water pollution. The burning of dung destroys essential nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, it is more useful to convert the biomass into biogas or bio fuels.

7. Biogas

 Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphite, the major constituents being methane. Biogas is produced by anaerobic degradation of animal and plant wastes in the presence of water. Anaerobic degradation is to break down the organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen. It is a non-polluting, clean and low cost fuel.

8. Nuclear Energy

 Proponents of nuclear energy contend that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by decreasing dependence on foreign oil. Nuclear fission is used to extract energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions. Utility scale reactors are use to produce steam which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion.

9. Geothermal Energy

 Geothermal energy is the heat from Earth. It’s clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth’s surface and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma. The steam or hot water comes out of the cracks in the Earth and when it doesn’t find any way to come out, holes are drilled with pipes in it to gush the hot water out due to high pressure which turn the turbines of a generator to produce electricity.

10. Radiant Energy

 99% of the cost of normal electricity can be saved by the use of radiant energy. It performs the same functions, but doesn’t possess behavior similar to electricity. Nikola Tesla built one of the earliest wireless telephones to be based on radiant energy.

Benefits of Renewable Energy

Environmental and economic benefits of adding renewable energy to a state portfolio can include :

  • Generating energy that produces no greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels and reduces some types of air pollution
  • Diversifying energy supply and reducing dependence on imported fuels
  • Creating economic development and jobs in manufacturing, installation, and more

Although there are many benefits ofRenewable Energy Sources but there are many barriers also. Price competitiveness is the most obvious barrier to renewable energy installations.  Apart from thatunfavourable utility rate structures have been a perennial barrier to increased deployment of renewable energy technologies.

A broad set of different RE technologies and resources exist today. Obviously, for a comprehensiveinvestigation of the future RE development it is of crucial importance to make a detailed investigationof the country- or region-specific situation – e.g. with respect to the potential of the certain RE’s ingeneral as well as the part that can be realised in the near future.

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